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Clinical and Research X-ray Machines

X-ray producing machines pose a recognized hazard, and their safe use in research and clinical practice requires the cooperation of all the physicians, nurses, scientists and students who work with and around these devices. The Institutional Radiation Safety Committees and the Institutional Administration have oversight responsibility for x-ray safety at Duke. Institutional radiation safety policy can be found in Chapter 11, Section E of the Duke Radiation Safety Manual. The scientist or physician responsible for an x-ray producing machine is the Principal X-ray User (XAU). The XAU is directly responsible for the safe use of the x-ray machines under his or her control. OESO’s Radiation Safety Division maintains a registry of x-ray machines and conducts periodic x-ray machine evaluations.

Specific Requirements:

1. Application: The XAU shall inform the Duke Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), Dr.Terry Yoshizumi, PhD [(919)668-3188] of his/her intent to acquire and/or install an x-ray producing device. "X-ray-producing devices" include x-ray imaging machines (diagnostic units, fluoroscopes, CT scanners), irradiators, x-ray diffractometers, analytical x-ray spectrometers and electron microscopes. The RSO will grant the XAU access to our on-line X-ray Machine Registry, where the XAU can complete a Web-based application form.

2. Registration: All x-ray producing equipment must be registered (a) with the State of North Carolina and (b) with the Duke Radiation Safety Division. Individuals wishing to register their machines with the State of North Carolina may obtain forms from the NC X-Ray Inspection Branch Web site and complete them and return them to the State. Alternatively, the X-ray Safety Manager can complete and return the forms.

3. Training: The following x-ray safety training courses, available on-line as OESO On-line Modules, are required:

  • Clinical X-ray Supervisors: Radiation Safety for Clinical X-ray Users and Radiation Safety for Radiology X-ray Users
  • All Users of X-ray Shielding PPE ("Lead Aprons", etc.): X-ray Aprons: Handling, Storage and Documentation
  • All Clinical Users of Fluoroscopy (A Joint Commission Requirement): Fluoroscopy Safety
  • Veterinary Fluoroscopy and Radiography Users: Radiation Safety for Non-Medical Fluoroscoppic X-ray Users
  • X-ray Cell and Small Animal Irradiator Users: Radiation Safety for Non-Medical X-ray Irradiator Users
  • X-ray Diffraction and Spectrometer Users: Radiation Safety for Non-Medical X-ray Users

Access to these Web courses requires a valid NetID.

4. Inspection: Evaluation of required documentation will be performed annually by the Radiation Safety Division.

5. X-ray Equipment: The X-ray Safety Manager must be notified of any changes in x-ray equipment or renovation of x-ray use areas. Prior to installation of new equipment or renovation of existing areas, plan reviews must be conducted by Radiation Safety. In addition, radiation surveys of existing use areas will be conducted periodically.